Dr. Samim Mustafa

Assistant Professor
Department/School/Unit Name
Department of Civil Engg., IIT(BHU)
Phone No(s): +916392667711
Email: samim.civ@iitbhu.ac.in
Area of Interest: Bayesian inference, Finite Element Model Updating, Structural Health Monitoring, Bridge Weigh-In-Motion, System Identification, Damping Analysis, Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing, Seismic Response Analysis of Bridges

Dr. Samim Mustafa

Welcome to my website

Research Interests


Dr. Samim Mustafa is presently working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering of Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi. Before joining to IIT (BHU), he worked as a Post-doctoral researcher in Advanced Research Laboratories of Tokyo City University where he has actively collaborated with various Japanese industries to deal with real-life problems related to Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Condition Assessment. Dr. Mustafa was a recipient of highly prestigious MEXT scholarship by the Japanese government and completed his doctoral study from Saitama University, Japan. During his doctoral study, he developed an energy-based approach for damping evaluation which was then used as a sensitive feature for the identification of local damage in an existing truss bridge. He also explored about the possibility of identification of local damage using Bayesian model updating framework. Dr. Mustafa obtained his B.E. with First-class Honours from Civil Engineering Department of Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur (Now known as IIEST), and the MTech in Civil Engineering with specialization in Structural Engineering from IIT Guwahati. He also has an industrial working experience where he served as a site engineer in the Larsen & Toubro Ltd., while being posted in Bokaro Steel Plant. Presently, he is working on developing new methods for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion and implementing them in Indian rail/roadway bridges for SHM and fatigue damage identification. He has also served as a reviewer in many reputed international journals and chaired special sessions in conferences worldwide.

Language proficiency: English, Bengali, and Hindi

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At JSCE Conference, Sendai
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JSCE Conference, Oyakama
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SHMII 2015, Torino, Italy
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SHMII 2015, Torino, Italy



Prospective students with the experience of using finite element modeling software (ABAQUS/ANSYS/SAP) and knowledge of writing codes in MATLAB/Python may contact me directly via Email with details of previous research experience, future research plan and CV. For deciding future research plans, it is advisable to go through the different research themes stated on my homepage under "Research Works". Candidates with new idea(s) in the domain of structural health monitoring and uncertainty estimation, beyond the mentioned themes listed in my homepage, are also welcomed. Potential candidates will be contacted immediately, if found suitable and they will be advised to apply through the official portal of IIT (BHU) [Link] for the consideration of their application.
Best wishes,


PhD position = 01
JRF position = 01 [Link] (Application deadline is May 26, 2024)

Where to send CV?

To my official Email address: samim.civ@iitbhu.ac.in
Send Email

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Research Themes In My Laboratory

1. Bayesian Model Updating

Ongoing Works

An efficient and robust Bayesian probabilistic approach was developed for FEM updating that accounts for various uncertainties and utilizes incomplete modal data (modal frequencies and partial mode shapes) identified by a limited number of sensors. A new objective function was introduced for Bayesian model updating that does not require any scaling or normalization of mode shapes because the likelihood function for mode shapes is formulated based on the cosine of the angle between the analytical and experimentally identified mode shapes. To validate the proposed approach, an initial MATLAB-based FEM of an existing steel truss bridge was updated using the identified modal parameters from the measured vibration data. The proposed framework was also found to be robust against measurement errors. The damage-detection capability of the proposed model-updating framework was then investigated by considering the data from a simulated damaged bridge and the experimental data from a damaged span of the same bridge with partial fractures on one of the diagonal members.

Bayesian method

Link: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0001044

2. Vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

Ongoing Works

An analytical framework for vibration-based SHM was introduced using an energy-based damping evaluation (EBDE). The damage detection by the proposed EBDE was carried out by estimating the contribution of modal damping ratios from different structural elements utilizing experimentally identified modal damping ratios, and estimating modal strain and modal potential energies from an updated finite-element (FE) model of the structure under consideration. Model updating was performed using modal frequencies and mode shapes that are generally not sensitive to local damage. The advantage of using damping as a damage indicator is that the damping change in global modes affected by the local damage can be identified with a small number of sensors. A previous study reported that the studied bridge with damage at the local diagonal member showed a significant increase in the damping of global vibration mode of the structure. The proposed vibration-based SHM approach could be promising in detecting damage at the local level when the problem related to low sensitivity of frequencies and mode shapes due to local damage remains a concern, and damage detection by change in stiffness parameters using FE model updating utilizing data from a large number of sensors is not practically feasible due to the limitation of budget and time.



Link: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0001159

3. Monitoring System for Seismic Damage Detection

Ongoing Works

A methodology for the selection of sensors and their arrangement was developed for detecting seismic damage in an in-service steel plate girder bridge system. In this study, a detailed span-based model was developed for the finite element simulation including the effect of the rubber bearing and piers, and the damage control by the side blocks. The finite element dynamic simulation was carried out with input earthquake acceleration to investigate the seismic behavior and grasp the damageable parts during an earthquake. Based on the results of finite element dynamic simulation, a fault tree analysis was carried out to reveal more about the bridge behavior, the failure modes, and the occurrence of damage. It was found that the side block, the bearing stiffener, and the horizontal bracing on the fixed side of the bridge are most important to be monitored for the evaluation of soundness of a plate girder bridge immediately after an earthquake. Finally, a sensor arrangement for the bridge was proposed based on the analysis results. In this monitoring system, the optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is placed in all bearings which are fixed in the transverse direction by the side blocks to measure the relative displacement between the superstructure and the substructure.





Link: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546320905176

4. Bridge Weigh-In-Motion (BWIM)

Ongoing Works

An iterative linear optimization problem (ILOP) was proposed to accurately identify the individual axle weights and GVWs of vehicles traversing a bridge. The proposed method used the bridge displacement responses as the measured responses which were determined from the recorded acceleration data. The information about the vehicle speed, number of axles and axle spacings were obtained by identifying the peaks in the recorded acceleration data. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method were demonstrated through field tests using the four-axle test vehicles with closely spaced axles. The results showed that the axle weights of vehicles with closely spaced axles could be identified with much better accuracy by the proposed method as compared to classic BWIM systems which are based on Moses’ original algorithm.






5. Retrofitting

Ongoing Works
Orthotropic steel decks (OSDs) are being used increasingly to replace old deteriorated reinforced concrete decks (RCDs). A numerical investigation was carried out to examine the effect of reduction in superstructure weight on the seismic resistance of the bridges when an existing RCD was being replaced by an OSD. Firstly, a detailed FE-model of a plate girder bridge with RCD was developed and then, another FE-model was constructed by replacing the RCD with the model of an OSD. Then, an eigenvalue analysis was carried out for each FE-model and their natural frequencies and the mode shapes were compared in order to understand the influence of deck replacement on the global vibrational characteristics of the bridge. After that, the effects of deck replacement on the seismic performance of the whole bridge system was investigated by performing a series of non-linear dynamic analysis with input earthquake data in the longitudinal and transverse directions separately and simultaneously. Based on the results of seismic response analysis, the differences in response behavior and damage level due to the replacement of deck were evaluated.




Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13296-020-00370-0


6. Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing

Ongoing Works

To investigate the optimal embedment depth for DOFS for pavement monitoring, a series of field tests was conducted by considering three embedment depths (10, 30, and 40 mm) and three moving loads (pedestrian, car and truck). The main objectives were to examine the performance of DOFS embedded in the pavement and investigate its suitability and sensitivity for obtaining information about moving loads at various depths from the road surface. Among the existing backscattering light technology, Rayleigh scattering-based Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) was chosen in order to achieve a measurement of high-speed, high range, and good repeatability with a very high spatial resolution of 2.56 mm, all of which are necessary for monitoring dynamic responses due to moving loads. In addition, a data-processing method was developed based on a combination of a Hampel identifier and a low-pass filter, which proved to be effective in removing outliers and high-frequency noise from the raw measurement data, respectively. The results showed that it is not only possible to detect a moving load on a road, but that a wide range of information can also be obtained from the strains measured by DOFS, including the type of load, its speed, its weight, the number of axles, the axle spacings (in the case of a vehicle) and the traffic flow. With low maintenance costs, DOFS based on Rayleigh scattering OFDR could be used for collection of accurate and reliable traffic data when embedded in a pavement.




7. Bridge Influence Line Identification and Damage Detection

Ongoing Works

The method to obtain an accurate influence line (IL) from the direct measurement is an important research topic for structural condition assessment, model correction and bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system. The two most common approaches used for the identification of IL are the time-domain (TD) method and the frequency-domain (FD) method. Despite having a similar mathematical framework, the TD and the FD methods are treated as two different methods by the researchers working on this field. This paper presents a detailed theoretical demonstration to show that the two methods discussed above are nothing but the same. The two methods were compared experimentally by using field measurement data on an existing steel girder bridge which were obtained by using three calibration trucks (CTs) with different axle weights and axle configurations. Although the ILs identified by the two methods were apparently different, but a theoretical insight into the frameworks revealed that the TD and FD methods are basically the same and a seeming difference between the two methods is due to the inherent assumptions involved in the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) such as the assumption of cyclic nature of analysis interval. Finally, a method to obtain an accurate influence line has been outlined.


Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2021.05.082

JOURNALS (*Corresponding Author, IF: Impact Factor)

  1. Mustafa S*, Sekiya H, Hirano S. Evaluation of Fatigue Damage in Steel Girder Bridges Using Displacement Influence Lines. Structures, (Elsevier), 53, 1160-1171, May 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.istruc.2023.04.126 (H-index: 42, IF: 4.01)
  2. Yoshida I*, Mustafa S, Sekiya H, Maruyama K. Bridge Weigh-In-Motion considering dynamic response in observation noise with application to multiple driving conditions. Structural Safety, (Elsevier), 103, 102350, April 2023. DOI: 10.1016/j.strusafe.2023.102350 (H-index: 100, IF: 5.7)
  3. Mustafa S*, Sekiya H, Morichika S, Maeda I, Takaba S and Hamajima A. Monitoring Internal Strains in Asphalt Pavements Under Static Loads Using Embedded Distributed Optical Fiber. Optical Fiber Technology (Elsevier), 68, 102829, Feb 2022. DOI: 10.1016/j.yofte.2022.102829 (H-index: 62, IF: 2.51)
  4. Mustafa S*, Sekiya H, Maeda I, Takaba S, Hamajima A. Identification of External Load Information Using Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded in an Existing Road Pavement. Optical Fiber Technology, (Elsevier), 67, 102705, Sep 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.yofte.2021.102705 (H-index: 62, IF: 2.51)
  5. Mustafa S*, Yoshida I, Sekiya H. An investigation of Bridge influence line identification using time-domain and frequency-domain methods. Structures (Elsevier), 33, 2061-2065, June 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.istruc.2021.05.082 (H-index: 42, IF: 4.01)
  6. Mustafa S*, Sekiya H, Hamajima A, Maeda I, Hirano S. Effects of Speeds and Weights of Travelling Vehicles on the Road Surface Temperature. Transportation Engineering (Elsevier), 5, 100077, May, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.treng.2021.100077 (H-index: 41, IF: 2.64)
  7. Yoshida I*, Sekiya H, Mustafa S. Bayesian Bridge Weigh-In-Motion and Uncertainty Estimation. ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems, Part A: Civil Engineering, 7(1), 04021001, Jan 2021. DOI: 10.1061/AJRUA6.0001118. (H-index: 23, IF: 1.86)
  8. Mustafa S*, Sekiya H, Hirano S, Miki C. Iterative Linear Optimization Method for Bridge Weigh-In-Motion Systems Using Accelerometers. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering (Taylor & Francis), 17:9, 1245-1256, Aug 2020. DOI: 10.1080/15732479.2020.1802490. (H-index: 48, IF: 2.62)
  9. Mustafa S*, Sekiya H, Hayama M, Miki C. Effects of Redecking from RC Deck to Orthotropic Steel Deck on Seismic Resistance of Elevated Girder Bridges. International Journal of Steel Structures, 20, 1393-1404, June 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s13296-020-00370-0. (H-index: 17, IF: 1.35)
  10. Mustafa S*, Sekiya H, Miki C. Determining the Location of Sensors for Seismic Damage Detection in Steel Girder Bridges with Elastomeric Bearings. Journal of Vibration and Control, 26(19-20), 1-12, Feb 2020. DOI: 10.1177/1077546320905176. (H-index: 63, IF: 3.095)
  11. Mustafa S*, Miki C. Design of Rupture Strength of Side Blocks in Elevated Steel Girder Bridges with Elastomeric Bearings. International Journal of Steel Structures, Springer, 20, 885–896, March 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s13296-020-00329-1 (H-index: 17, IF: 1.35)
  12. Mustafa S*, Matsumoto Y, Yamaguchi H. Vibration-based health monitoring of an existing truss bridge using energy-based damping evaluation, Journal of Bridge Engineering (ASCE), 23(1), 04017114-1-15, Jan 2018. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0001159. (H-index: 66, IF: 2.196)
  13. Mustafa S*, Matsumoto Y. Bayesian model updating and its limitations for detecting local damage of an existing truss bridge, Journal of Bridge Engineering (ASCE), 22(7), 04017019-1-14, Mar 2017. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0001044. (H-index: 66, IF: 2.196)
  14. Mustafa S, Debnath N, Dutta A*. Bayesian probabilistic approach for model updating and damage detection for a large truss bridge, International Journal of Steel Structures, Springer, Vol. 15, No 2, pp. 473-485, June 2015. DOI: 10.1007/s13296-015-6016-3 (H-index: 17, IF: 1.35)
  15. Mustafa S. Bridge Influence line identification using Bayesian method considering multiple signals. (In-preparation)


  1. Mustafa S, Dammika AJ, Matsumoto Y, Yamaguchi H, Yoshioka T. A Bayesian Probabilistic Approach for Finite Element Model Updating Utilizing Vibration Data Measured in an Existing Steel Truss Bridge. Proceeding of Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure: Torino, Italy, Vol. RS3, pp. 114-123, July, 2015.
  2. Mustafa S, Dutta A. Bayesian Probabilistic Approach for model updating and damage detection, In proceeding of Vienna Congress on Recent Advances in Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vienna, Austria, Vol. 119, August, 2013.
  3. Mustafa S, Matsumoto Y. Model updating of a steel truss bridge using Bayesian probabilistic approach. In proceeding of 17th International Summer Symposium of JSCE, Okayama, Japan, Vol. CS2, No. 003, pp. 5-6, September, 2015.
  4. Mustafa S, Matsumoto Y. An energy-based damping evaluation for interpretation of damping increase due to damage in an existing steel truss bridge. In proceeding of 18th International Summer Symposium of JSCE, Sendai, Japan, Vol. CS2, No. 005, September, 2016.
  5. Mustafa S, Matsumoto Y, Yamaguchi H. An Energy-based Damping Evaluation for the Local Damage Detection of an Existing Steel Truss Bridge, In Proceeding of Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure: Brisbane, Australia, Vol. RS5, 575-585, 5-8 December 2017.
  6. Maruyama K, Yoshida I, Sekiya H, Mustafa S. Improvement of estimation accuracy by BWIM considering autocorrelation of observation error, In proceeding of 23rd International Summer Symposium of JSCE, Tokyo, D1, September, 2021. (ONLINE)
  7. K. Maruyama, I. Yoshida, H. Sekiya, S. Mustafa. Uncertainty Quantification of axle weight estimated by Bayesian Bridge Weigh-In-Motion. Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability, pp. 1-8, 2022, CRC Press. (Book chapter)
  1. Mustafa S, Matsumoto Y. Structural Health Monitoring of Truss Bridges Using Vibration Measurement. 5th ISAJ Symposium: Advances in Natural Sciences & Technologies, Indian Embassy Auditorium, Tokyo, December, 2014. (Poster)
  2. Mustafa S. Bayesian-based Bridge weigh-in-motion using MEMS accelerometers. The 163rd TCU-ARL Seminar, International Workshop on Data-driven Infrastructure Maintenance and Risk Management, Tokyo, Japan, September 24, 2020.
  1. Road Surface Temperature Monitoring Using Infrared Sensor. A project with Toyota. Tokyo, Japan March 2020.
  2. Movement Detection Using Distributed Optical Fiber. A project with Toyota. Tokyo, Japan, June 2020.

Courses Taught

EVEN Semester

1. CE-561: Theory of Plates (For MTech and PhD)
     Session: (2022-23), (2023-24)

  • Module 1: Classical Theory of Plates [Link]
  • Module 2: Analysis of Simply-supported Plates [Link]
  • Module 3: Analysis of Fixed-end Plates [Link]
  • Module 4: Analysis of Continuous Plates [Link]
  • Module 5: Thermal Stresses in Plates [Link]
  • Module 6: Buckling of Plates [Link]

    2. CE101: Basic Surveying (2021-22)
              Module 1: Introduction, Types of Surveys and Maps, Scales, Accuracy and Errors [Link]
              Module 2: Chain Surveying [Link] and Compass Surveying [Link]
              Module 3: Levelling and Contouring [Link]
              Module 8: Photogrammetry Engineering [Link]
3. CE102: Surveying Laboratory (2021-22) (2022-23)

ODD Semester:

1. CE-550: Matrix Analysis of Structures (For IDD, MTech and PhD)
     Session: (2022-23), (2023-24)

  •   Module 1: Introduction and Fundamentals of Structural Analysis [Link]
  •   Module 2: Fundamentals of Stiffness Method [Link]
  •  - Getting Started With MATLAB [Link]
  •  - MATLAB Code of Direct Stiffness Method for Continuous Beam [Link][Link]
  •   Module 3: Fundamentals of Flexibility Method [Link]
  •   Module 4: Rotation of Axes and Transformation Matrix [Link]

  2. CE-336: Matrix Analysis of Structures (for BTech 3rd Year)

  •   Module 1: Introduction and Fundamentals of Structural Analysis [Link]
  •   Module 2: Fundamentals of Stiffness Method [Link]
  •  - Getting Started With MATLAB [Link]
  •  - MATLAB Code of Direct Stiffness Method for Continuous Beam [Link][Link]
  •   Module 3: Fundamentals of Flexibility Method [Link]
  •   Module 4: Rotation of Axes and Transformation Matrix [Link]

  3. CE-431: Structural Engineering Laboratories    


  • CE402: Structural Dynamics
  • CE202: Strength of Materials


A. Sponsored Research Projects

1. Vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring System for a Truss Bridge
Funding Agency: Seed Grant by IIT (BHU) Varanasi
Grant Amount: ₹10 Lakh
Duration: May 2023 - April 2024
Principal Investigator: Dr. Samim Mustafa

2. Bayesian-based Bridge Influence Line Identification and Uncertainty Estimation
"Eight International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE 2023), Italy (02 July, 2023 to 06 July, 2023)"
Funding Agency: International Travel Scheme (ITS) by SERB
Grant Amount: ₹1.28 Lakh
Duration: June 2023 - July 2023
Principal Investigator: Dr. Samim Mustafa

3. Development of an Efficient and Portable Bridge Weigh-In-Motion System for In-service Condition Monitoring
Funding Agency: SRG, SERB
Grant Amount: ₹28.3 Lakh
Duration: Jan 2024 - Jan 2026
Principal Investigator: Dr. Samim Mustafa

B. Consultancy Projects

1. Vetting of structural design of Zinc Alume/Galvaume Bolted panel with liner elevated/RCC water storage tanks for UP Jal Jeevan Mission
Project Consultant: Dr. Samim Mustafa
Project Duration: Dec 2022 - Present

2. Vetting of structural design of a Hostel building project at Plot No-35-A, Sector-KP-03, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh
Project Consultant: Dr. Samim Mustafa
Funding Agency: MSF Engineering Solutions
Project Duration: June 2023 - July 2023

1. Session organizer in IALCCE 2023, Milano, Italy.

SS-07: Bridge Weigh-In-Motion Systems and Applications to Structural Health Monitoring. [Link]


PHD Scholars

1. Abhishek

Abhishek Kumar Srivastava

PhD Student
Roll Number: 23061009

Thesis: To be decided soon  

MASTER and IDD Students

1. Pawan

Pawan Singh

Master Student
Roll Number: 22062010

Thesis: Dynamic Analysis of a Railway Bridge Considering Rail-Structure Interactions

2. Ujjal

Ujjwal Katiyar

IDD Student
Roll Number: 

Thesis: Fatigue Damage Evaluation of An Orthotropic Steel Deck

3. Subhajit

Subhajit Mondal

Master Student
Roll Number: 22062002

Main Supervisor: Prof. S Mandal

Thesis: Bayesian Model Updating and Damage Detection

BTECH Students


    • Post-doctoral researcher, Tokyo City University (2018 - 2022)
    • MEXT fellowship by Japanese government (2013 - 2016)
    • Research Assistantship during Masters, IIT Guwahati (2011 - 2013) 
    • First Class Honours by Bengal Engineering and Science University Shibpur (2008)

    Reviewer in Journals

    1. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE
    2. Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE
    3. Engineering Structures, Elsevier
    4. Journal of Vibration and Control, SAGE
    5. Structures, Elsevier
    6. Measurements, Elsevier
    7. ISHII
    8. IALCCE



    Dr. Samim Mustafa
    Department of Civil Engineering
    IIT (BHU) Varanasi
    Varanasi - 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Email: samim.civ@iitbhu.ac.in

    Contact No.: +91-6392667711