marshal.bme's picture
Dr. Marshal
Associate Professor
School of Biomedical Engineering
Area of Interest: 
Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Stem Cell Reprogramming, Bio-MEMS and Biosensors, Biophyiscs, Nano-medicine, Plasma Physics


  • Ph.D., University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Manchester, England, 2004
    Thesis: Plasma treatment and deposition of polymeric materials with applications in life science.
    Thesis Advisor: Professor James W. Bradley
    M.Sc., University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India, 1998
    Research Project: Development of a plastic scintillation detectors for β-ray detection.
    Project Advisor: Professor Y.K. Vijay
    B.Sc., University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India, July 1996 (College Topper)

Significant Research Contributions   

Development of Implantable Artificial Human Organ on Chip
Our lab in collaboration with Dr Aleem A Khan's group  developed human pancreatic islets by transdifferentiating human hepatic progenitor cells on transplantable nanostructured chips. The pancreatic islets showed functional response by producing adequate insulin to reverse hyperglycemic condition. The work has its uniqueness in preventing cytokines response while transplanted intraperitoneally in a non-immunocompromised mice model system. Currently, we are working in advancing our understanding of biomaterial science and its role in regenerative medicine, enabling the utilization of available drugs in cancer therapy more effectively by changing their mode of acceptance by the cellular system and  finding their new applications (Ref: Advance Therapeutics, 1900205 (2020) doi:

Reversal of Drug Resistance of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Drug resistance in cancer cells is one of the major barrier in clinical treatment and several researchers are working on finding ways to overcome drug resistance. Our research group has uniquely identified a way of reversal of drug resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The study demonstrated bypassing efflux of drug molecules due to non-functional response of drug receptors. The initial study provides a new dimension to further understand the mechanisms for reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells along with combating and treating drug resistance cells. (Ref: Scientific Report, 7, 8539, 2017 doi:

Developing Methods for Quantification of Cell Surface Markers Without the Use of Fluorescence Microscopy 
Our group developed a new method that can be an alternative to fluorescence-based techniques used to quantify cell surface markers. The method quantifies charge transportation due to antibody interaction with antigen expressed at the viable cell’s surface. This method does not require fluorophore-tagged secondary antibodies. This technique will provide a new direction for assessing time-dependent kinetic of antigen-antibody interaction. Our group demonstrated a real-time methodology that can be used to identify surface markers in the viable cell population (Ref:, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 206,114134 (2022) doi:


Associate Professor, July 2017 – Present
School of Biomedical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology (B.H.U.), Varanasi, India
Senior Scientist, 2013 –  2017
CSIR- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, India
Scientist, 2009 – 2013
CSIR- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, India
Senior Fellow, 2008 – 2009
Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Scientist Fellow, 2006 – 2008
CSIR- National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Delhi, India
Research Professor, 2004 – 2006
Biology Research Center for Industrial Accelerators
Dongshin University, Naju, South Korea

Institutional Responsibilities and Leadership Roles

Member, Board of Studies, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Central University of Rajasthan (2022-2024).
Elected Life Member of "The National Academy of Science, India" (NASI) one of India’s oldest and prestigious academy, 2022 in Life Sciences.
Faculty Coordinator (International Exchange), Student Counselling Service, IIT (BHU)-2019.
Chairman, PhD Admission Committee, School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT (BHU) 2022.
Member, Board of Studies, Department of Biomedical Engineering, SRM University, Sonipat, Haryana, India (2020-2022).
Member, Departmental Faculty Affairs Committee, School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT (BHU)-2020-2022.
Chairman, M.Tech Admission Committee, School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT (BHU) 2019-2021.
Convenor, Department Undergraduate Committee, School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT (BHU)- 2020-2021.
Faculty representative, School of Biomedical Engineering in the Training Placement Cell of IIT(BHU)-2020.
Convenor, Department Annual Report Preparation, School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT (BHU)- 2018 to 2020.
Faculty Coordinator (Wellness), Student Counselling Service, IIT (BHU), from 2018-2019.
Convenor, Department Undergraduate Committee, School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT (BHU)- 2018-2019.
Convenor, Exploratory Project, School of Biomedical Engineering, IIT (BHU) – 2017-2019.
Committee Member, MEMS/NEMS Technical Group, American Vacuum Society (AVS) International Symposium & Exhibition, USA, 2006-2018.
Editorial Advisory Board Member, The Open Electrochemistry Journal published by Bentham Open, 2008.
Guest Editor, Journal of Scientific Conference Proceedings published by American Scientific Publishers (Volume 1), 2008.
Scientific Advisory Board Member, 5th Anniversary Congress of International Drug Discovery Science and Technology: Advances and Challenges toward Major Diseases, China, 2007.
Guest Editor, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology published by American Scientific Publishers (Volume 2), 2006.
Program Chair, MEMS/NEMS Technical Group, American Vacuum Society (AVS) 53rd International Symposium, San Francisco, CA, USA, November 2006.
Chair, Nano Biomaterial and Biotechnology Session, International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Gawanju, Korea, 2005.
President, UMIST India Society, Manchester, England (2001-2003).
Have been a member of several professional societies such as the Institute of Physics, American Vacuum Society, Society for Vacuum Coaters, Indian Cell Biology Society, etc.

Short Visits for Research Collaboration and Talks

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST), Okinawa, Japan, 2015
In the laboratory of Professor Mukhles Ibrahim Sowwan.
University of Aveiro, Portugal, Europe (2011)
In the laboratory of Professor Sushil Kumar Mendiratta, Department of Physics
University of Bristol, England (2011)
In the laboratory of Professor Mervyn Miles, Centre for Nanoscience and Quantum Information, Department of Physics.
Chonnam National University, Gawanju, South Korea (2010)
In the laboratory of Professor HB Gu, Department of Electrical Engineering.
Washington State University, USA (2009)
In the laboratory of Professor Susmita Bose, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
Chonnam National University, Gawanju, South Korea (2008)
In the laboratory of Professor HB Gu, Department of Electrical Engineering.
Stanford University, USA (2006)
In the laboratory of Professor Yoshio Nishi at Stanford Nanofabrication Facility.
University of Louisville, USA (2006)
Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of Louisville.
University of California, Berkeley, USA (2003)
In the laboratory of Professor Michael A. Lieberman, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA (2003)
In the laboratory of Professor Ian H. Hutchinson, Plasma Science & Fusion Center.
Research Centre Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany (2001)
In the laboratory of Professor Miller at Institute, Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research.


PhD Student

  • Miss Juhi Jaiswal (M.Tech in Biomedical Engg from IIIT-A)
  • Mr. Devdutt Sharma (M.Tech in Nanoscience and Technology from Kurukshetra University) 
​​           E-mail:​​
  • Mr. Taresh Sarvesh Sharan (M.Tech from MNIT Allahabad) 
​​           E-mail:
  • Miss Shubhangi (M.Tech in Molecular Engineering and Advanced Chemical Analysis from NIT, Kurukshetra)
  • Mr. Shailendra Kumar (M.Tech in Biomedical Engineering, IIT-BHU, Varanasi)
​​           E-mail:​​​
  • Miss. Snehlata Yadav (M.Sc in Zoology from Swami Vivekananda Subharti University, Meerut)
​​           E-mail:​​​
  • Miss. Sanju Kumari (M.Sc.)
​​           E-mail:​​​

B.Tech/IDD/M.Tech Students


Trainee Students




Mr. Vidush Agrawal (IDD, School of Biomedical Engineering)
Mr. Arshad Kazi (IDD, School of Biomedical Engineering)
Mr. Ravi Kumar Gadwal (IDD, School of Biochemical Engineering)
Mr. Indranil Singh (now MS student at Israel)
Lekkala Sashank (now M.S student at  Cornell University)​
Miss Abhilasha (Ashoka Institute of Technology and Management, Varanasi)

Funded Projects at IIT (BHU)
(1) Early stage detection of non-small cell lung cancer by developing aptamer graphene Microarray (50 lakhs INR from Indian Council for Medical Research, 2021-2024).
(2) Teaching and training facility in Nano-cellular and Biophysics laboratory for undergraduate and post-graduate students (about 20 lakhs INR OH-35 grant from IIT-BHU, 2018-2023).
(3) HEFA-EWS grant for molecular biology facilities development (3.5 lakhs INR from Indian Institute of Technology(BHU), Varanasi, 2019-2020).
(4) Nanoparticles supported self-assembled conducting polymer monolayerbased platform for rapid detection of monosodium glutamate in food products (89.32 lakhs with Dr Raju Khan, NEIST, Jorhat from Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India, 2017-2020).
(5) Developing 3D stem cell platforms (7.5 lakhs INR from Transcell Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad, 2017-2019).
(6) Establishing a biosensing work station (10 lakhs INR from Indian Institue of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, 2017-2018).
(7) Establishing Stem Cell Research Lab (4.7 lakhs INR from Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, 2017-2018).
Previous (2009-2017) Research Grants (of total over Rs. 200 Lakhs)
  1. Functional and structural modification in metal oxide materials for bone implants (2012-2017, CSIR Network Project, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India).
  2. Developing functional materials by electrochemical polymerization of natural glycans for stem cells biology and regenerative medicine. (2012-2015, CSIR Network Project, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India).
  3. Development of gold micro-electrode array with nanometer size opening for use in biosensor at physiological conditions (2010-2014, Department of Biotechnology, Govt of India).
  4. Developing reference methods for assessing the toxic effects of engineering nanomaterials, funding by EU Seventh Framework Program (FP7) (2011-2013).
  5. Surface Enhance Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) for ultrasensitive detection of biomolecules in collaboration with Professor Sushil Kumar Mendiratta, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Portugal, Europe (2010-2013, Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India).
  6. Cost effective novel metal oxide doped TiO2 for tissue regenerative engineering (2009-2012, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India).


  1. A Method for Electro/Electrochemical Differentiation of Stem Cells; Indian Patent Application Number- TEMP/E-1/7430/2022-DEL; Marshal and Juhi Jaiswal.
  2. A System and Method for Electrochemical Detection and Quantification of Cell Characteristics and Functions; Indian Patent Application Number- TEMP/E-1/7199/2022-DEL; Marshal and Juhi Jaiswal.
  3. An Improved Digital Stethoscope; Indian Patent Application Number- TEMP/E- 1/33329/2020-DEL; Marshal and Taresh Sharvesh Sharan.
  4. An Anti-Microbial Multi-Layer Face Mask and a Method of Preparation Thereof; Indian Patent Application Number - TEMP/E- 1/18855/2020-DEL; Marshal and Juhi Jaiswal.
  5. Three Electrode System for Inactivation of Bacterial Cells; Indian Patent Application Number -TEMP/E-1/16742/2020-DEL; Ashish Kumar Singh, Juhi Jaiswal and Marshal.
  6. A Novel Process for Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles and a Product Thereof; Indian Patent Application Number - TEMP/E-1/41068/2019-DEL; Marshal and Juhi Jaiswal.
  7. A Novel Space Filler Material for Postcancer Surgery and a Method of Preparation Thereof; Indian Patent Application Number - TEMP/E-1/29577/2019-DEL; Marshal and Juhi Jaiswal.
  8. A process for the preparation of metal nanoparticles; European Patent Number: EP3062945 (B1), Indian Patent Application (IN3245/DEL/2013), US Patent Application US20160263657 A1, Australia Patent Application AU2014343178 (A1), Canadian Patent Application CA2929431 (A1), China Patent Application   CN105899313 (A); Sankalp, Vinod Agarwal, Shyam Sunder Reddy, Marshal.
  9. Indian Patent Number: 240394; Marshal.Coating of natural fertilised on seed surface;


Young Scientist Award from Society for Biomaterials and Artificial Organs (India) in XXVII National Conference and the 6th Asian Biomaterials Congress with a them ‘Innovative Biomaterials: Technologies for Life and Society’ October 2017.
PhD Fellowship, at UMIST (The University of Manchester) from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) project
Winner of Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC) student sponsorship program. This program had provided travel support and conference registration fees to the best selected full-time graduate students to make an oral technical presentation at 46th SVC technical conference, San Francisco, USA.

Peter Allen award from UMIST to visit Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and University of California, Berkeley.

Qualified Joint Entrance Screening Test 1999, national level competitive examination in India for research fellowship.
Qualified National Eligibility Test for Lectureship (NET) and Junior Research Fellowship (2000).
Qualified Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) (2000). One of the most competitive examination in India to qualify for admission in prestigious higher education institutes such as Indian Institute of Technology (IIT).
Book Chapter 
AK Khan, SK Vishwakarma, A Bardia, Md. A Habeeb, Marshal Dhayal, Repopulation of Cirrohotic Liver by Hepatic Stem/Progenitor Cells: A promising Strategy Alternative to Liver Transplantation, Liver Pathophysiology: Therapies & Antioxidants (Edited by Pablo Muriel), 2017, 817-836.


    1. J Jaiswal and Marshal Dhayal. Electrochemically differentiated human MSCs biosensing platform for    quantification of nestin and β-III tubulin as whole-cell system; Biosens. Bioelectron. 206 (2022) 114134.
    2. D Sharma, HS Dutta and Marshal Dhayal. Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of electrochemically synthesized PANI-TiO2 nanocomposites for MSG biosensor. Applied Surface Science Advances 10 (2022) 100264.
    3. D Sharma, Rashmita Devi, Juhi Jaiswal, Hemant Sankar Dutta, Raju Khan and Marshal Dhayal, A Highly Sensitive Immunosensor based on In-Situ Reduced Gold-Chitosan Nanocomposite for Detection of Monosodium L-glutamate; Journal of Biosystems Engineering, accepted 47(1) (2022) 28-38.
    4. J Jaiswal and Marshal Dhayal, Coatings of Protonated Amine Conjugated Biocidal Nano-metal Matrix for Preparation of Anti-microbial Materials for Face Mask, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, (2021/JPRI/70235), in press 2022.
    5. S K Vishwakarma, J Jaiswal, K H Park, C Lakkireddy, N Raju, A Bardia, Md. A Habeeb, S A B Paspala, A A Khan and Marshal Dhayal. TiO2 Nanoflowers on Conducting Substrates Ameliorate Effective Transdifferentiation of Human Hepatic Progenitor Cells for Long-Term Hyperglycemia Reversal in Diabetic Mice; Adv. Therap., 1900205 (2020).
    6. AK Singh, Juhi Jaiswal and Marshal Dhayal. Platinum disc electrode for in-situ electrochemical inactivation of bacterial growth in culture media. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 868 (2020) 114119.
    7.  J Jaiswal and Marshal Dhayal. Electroanalytical Method for Quantification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells as Charge Transport Barriers in Culture Media. Electroanalysis 32 (2020) 1-9.
    8. J Jaiswal and Marshal Dhayal. Preparation of 2D coatings of functionally graded chitosan-gold nanocomposite through in-situ reduction in cationic and anionic environments: Application for inhibiting hepatocellular carcinoma cells response. Materials Chemistry and Physics 243 (2020) 122663.
    9. Deepti Sharma, N. Naga Malleswara Rao, S. Arasaretnam, Annadanam V. Sesha Sainath and Marshal Dhayal. Functionalization of structurally diverse glycopolymers on graphene oxide surfaces and their quantification through fluorescence resonance energy transfer with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Colloid and Polymer Science. 298 (2020) 365–375.
    10. R R Pandey, Marshal Dhayal, and K K Saini, Electrochemical Quantification of Enzymatic Responses on Metal Oxide Surfaces Doped with Higher Electronegativity Metal Ions; Adv. Sci. Eng. Med. 10 (2018) 992-99.
    11. SK Vishwakarma, P Sharmila, A Bardia, L Chandrakala, N. Raju, Sravani G, B.V.S. Sastry, Md. A Habeeb, AK Khan, Marshal Dhayal, Use of Biocompatible Sorafenib-gold Nanoconjugates for Reversal of Drug Resistance in Human Hepatoblatoma Cells, Scientific Report. 7 (2017) 8539.
    12. K Dave and Marshal Dhayal, Fluorometric estimation of amino acids interaction with colloidal suspension of FITC functionalized graphene oxide nanoparticles, Applied Surface Science 396, (2017) 978-985.
    13. J Gopinath, KH Park, SJ Kim, V Santosh, AVS Sainath, Marshal Dhayal, Phenanthroline-based ruthenium complexes for enhanced charge transportation in solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte, Journal of Materials Science 52 (17), (2017) 10545-10556.
    14. M Trinadh, K Govindaraj, V Santosh, Marshal Dhayal and AVS Sainath, Synthesis of PEO-based di-block glycopolymers at various pendant spacer lengths of glucose moiety and their in-vitro biocompatibility with MC3T3 cells, Designed Monomers and Polymer 19(1) (2016) 24-33. 
    15. K Dave, KH Park and Marshal Dhayal, Characteristics of ultrasonication assisted assembly of gold nanoparticles in hydrazine reduced graphene oxide, RSC Advances 5(130) (2015) 107348-107354. 
    16. K Dave, KH Park and Marshal Dhayal, Tow-step Process for Programmable Removal of Oxygen Functionality of Graphene Oxide: Functional, Structural and Electrical Characteristics, RSC Advances 5(116) (2015) 95657-95665. 
    17. KH Park and Marshal Dhayal, 3D-nanoflowers of rutile TiO2 as a film grown on conducting and non-conducting glass substrates for in vitro biocompatibility studies with mouse MC3T3 osteoblast and human HS-5 cells, RSC Advances 5(42) (2015) 33503-33514. 
    18. M Trinadh, K Govindaraj, T Rajasekhar, Marshal Dhayal and AVS Sainath, Synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene oxide)-based glycopolymers and their biocompatibility with osteoblast cells, Polymer International. 64(6) (2015) 795-803. 
    19. JW Lee, WH Cho, Marshal Dhayal and KH Park, Cerium Doped Fluorescence into TiO2 Photoelectrode for Enhancement of Electrochemical Response in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci 10 (2015) 8236-8242. 
    20. KH Park and Marshal Dhayal, Simultaneous Growth of Rutile TiO2 as 1D/3D Nanorod/Nanoflower on FTO in One-step Process Enhances Electrochemical Response of Photoanode in DSSC, Electrochemistry Communications 49 (2014) 47-50. 
    21. SV Agrawal, SS Reddy and Marshal Dhayal, Ultra small gold nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solution and their application in fluorometric collagen estimation using bi-ligand functionalisation, RSC Advances 4(35) (2014) 18250-18256. 
    22. M Trinadh, G Kannan, T Rajasekhar, AVS Sainath and Marshal Dhayal, Synthesis of glycopolymers at various pendant spacer lengths of glucose moiety and their effects on adhesion, viability and proliferation of osteoblast cells, RSC Advances 4(70) (2014) 37400-37410. 
    23. KH Park, RR Pandey, CK Hong, KK Saini and Marshal Dhayal, Electrochemical Characterization of Organo-Metallic Coating of TiO2 Nanoparticles with Soybean Oil Base Binders for Enzymatic Biosensors, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 196 (2014) 589-595.
    24. Marshal Dhayal, R Kapoor, PG Sistla, RR Pandey, S Kar, KK Saini, G Pande, Strategies to Prepare TiO2 Thin Films, Doped with Transition Metal Ions, That Exhibit Specific Physicochemical Properties to Support Osteoblast Cell Adhesion and Proliferation, Materials Science and Engineering C, 37 (2014) 99-107. 
    25. R Khan, KK Saini and Marshal Dhayal, High Sensitivity Electrochemical Immunosensor based on plasma modified TIO2/Chitosan for ochratoxin-A detection, Advanced Electrochemistry, 1(2) (2013) 148-152. 
    26. RR Randey, Marshal Dhayal and KK Saini, Engineering Electrochemical Response of TiO2-Based Enzymatic Biosensors by Aliovalent Cation Doping, Advanced Electrochemistry 1 (2013), 62-66. 
    27. RR Randey, Marshal Dhayal and KK Saini, Modification of titanium surface states by Ruthenium to Enhance Electrochemical Response of TiO2 thin films for Biosensor Application, Adv. Electrochem. 1 (2013) 55-61. 
    28. R Sharma, R R Pandey, A A Gupta, S Kar and Marshal Dhayal, Microstructure formation in in-situ amino acids functionalized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 133 (2012) 718-725. 
    29. Marshal Dhayal, R Kapoor, P G Sistla, C Kant, R R Pandey, Govind, K K Saini and G Pande, Ni doped TiO2 thin films on borosilicate glass enhance in-vitro growth and differentiation of osteoblasts, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 100A(5) (2012) 1168-1178. 
    30. RR Pandey, KK Saini, M Paul, CP Sharma, C Kant and Marshal Dhayal, Surface analysis of tungsten doped TiO2 films and its effect on photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants, Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits, 1(1) (2011) 26-41. 
    31. R Khan, NC Dey, AK Hazarika1, KK Saini and Marshal Dhayal, Mycotoxin Detection on Antibody Immobilized Conducting Polymer Supported Electrochemically Polymerized Acacia Gum, Analytical Biochemistry, 410(2) (2011) 185-190. 
    32. RR Pandey, KK Saini and Marshal Dhayal, Using Nano-Arrayed Structures in Sol-Gel Derived Mn2+ Doped TiO2 for High Sensitivity Urea Biosensor, Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronic (2010) 1: 101. 
    33. KH Park, HB Gu, EM Jin and Marshal Dhayal, Using hybrid silica-conjugated TiO2 nanostructures to enhance the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, Electrochimica Acta, 55 (2010) 5499–5505. 
    34. Marshal Dhayal and D Ratner, XPS and SPR analysis of glycoarray surface density, Langmuir, 25 (2009) 2181-2187. 
    35. KH Park and Marshal Dhayal, High efficiency solar cell based on dye sensitized plasma treated nanostructured TiO2 films, Electrochemistry Communications, 11(1) (2009) 75-79. 
    36. R Khan and Marshal Dhayal, Chitosan/polyaniline hybrid conducting biopolymer based immunosensor to detect ochratoxin-A, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 24 (6) (2009) 1700-1705. 
    37. R Khan and Marshal Dhayal, Nanocrystalline bioactive TiO2/chitosan impedimetric immunosensor for ochratoxin A, Electrochemistry Communications, 10 (2008) 492-495. 
    38. R Khan and Marshal Dhayal, Electrochemical studies of novel chitosan/TiO2 bioactive electrode for biosensing application, Electrochemistry Communications, 10 (2008) 263-267. 
    39. Marshal Dhayal, SI Cho, JY Moon, SJ Cho and A Zykova, S180 cell growth on low energy argon plasma treated TiO2 thin films, Applied Surface Science 254 (2008) 3331-3338. 
    40. KH Park, H Li, Marshal Dhayal, JW Lee and HB Gu, Performance improvement of dye-sensitized glass powder added TiO2 solar cells, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 8 (2008) 5252–5256. 
    41. KH Park, DW Park, Marshal Dhayal and HB Gu, Electrochemical properties of liquid electrolyte added quasi-solid state TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells, Electrochemistry Communications, 10 (2008) 1098-1100. 
    42. J Jun, Marshal Dhayal, BH Kim and HG Woo, High pressure plasma treatment for controlling the surface activity and optical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 8, (2008) 5537–5542. 
    43. Marshal Dhayal, SD Sharma, C Kant, KK Saini and S C Jain, Role of Ni doping in surface carbon removal and photo catalytic activity of nano-structured TiO2 film, Surface Science, 602 (2008) 1149-1154. 
    44. J Jun, Marshal Dhayal, JH Shin, YH Han and N Getoff, Enhancement of catalectic activities of Ni/Al2O3 treated with electron beam, Applied Surface Science, 252 (2008) 4557-4564. 
    45. YK Vijay, NK Acharya, V Kulshrestha, M Singh, BK Sharma, Marshal Dhayal and JS Choi, Modification in microstructured and properties of polymers by 10keV electron beam, International Journal of Nanoscience, 6(2) (2007) 167-171. 
    46. Marshal Dhayal, Using different size of grids to control the surface chemistry of plasma polymerized acrylic acid films, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 104 (2007) 2219-2224. 
    47. V Sharma, Marshal Dhayal, Govind, SM Shivaprasad and SC Jain, Surface characterization of plasma treated and PEG grafted PDMS for micro fluidic applications, Vacuum, 81 (2007) 1094-1100. 
    48. Marshal Dhayal, J Jun, HB Gu and KH Park, Modification of surface states and optical property of TiO2 thin films by low-pressure plasma treatment, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 180 (2007) 2696-2701. 
    49. SI Cho, SJ Cho, BY Kim and Marshal Dhayal, Anticancer activities of sparganium stoloniferum on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 2 (2006) 125-128. 
    50. SI Cho and Marshal Dhayal, Applications of plasma polymerized acrylic acid coatings to control the growth of cancer cells (Sarcoma 180), Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 2 (2006) 137-143. 
    51. Marshal Dhayal, Control of the plasma polymerized acrylic acid film surface chemistry in a two-stage discharge, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, 24 (2006) 1751-1755. 
    52. Marshal Dhayal, K Awasthi, YK Vijay, DK Awasthi, Using fast atomic source and low energy plasma ions for polymer surface modification, Vacuum, 80 (2006) 643-646. 
    53. Marshal Dhayal, SY Lee and SU Park, Application of low pressure plasma for seed germination of Carthamus tinctorium L., Vacuum, 80 (2006) 499-506. 
    54. YK Vijay, Marshal Dhayal, V Kulshrestha, K Avasthi and JS Choi, Surface modification and synthesis of polymeric membrane for energy and biological applications, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 2 (2006) 144-151. 
    55. Marshal Dhayal and SI Cho, Leukemia cells interaction with plasma polymerized acrylic acid coatings, Vacuum, 80 (2006) 636-642.
    56. Marshal Dhayal, Application of low temperature substrate bonding in fabrication of reusable micro fluidic devices, Vacuum, 80 (2006) 488-493. 
    57. Marshal Dhayal and JS Choi, Control of chemical functional groups at surface of micro/nano devices using plasma polymerization process, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 2 (2006) 109-115. 
    58. J Jun, JH Shin, JS Choi and Marshal Dhayal, Surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles using electron beam radiation, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 2(2) (2006) 152-156. 
    59. Marshal Dhayal, CH So, JS Choi and J Jun, Control of bio-MEMS surface chemical properties in micro fluidic devices for biological applications, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 6 (2006) 3494-3498.  
    60. J Jun, Marshal Dhayal, JH Shin, JC Kim and N Getoff, Surface state and photoactivity of electron beam treated TiO2, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 75 (2006) 583-589. 
    61. J Jun, JH Shin and Marshal Dhayal, Surface state of TiO2 treated with low ion energy plasma, Applied Surface Science, 252 (2006) 3871-3877. 
    62. Marshal Dhayal, MR Alexander and JW Bradley, The surface chemistry resulting from low-pressure plasma treatment of polystyrene: the effect of residual vessel bound oxygen, Applied Surface Science, 252 (2006) 7957-7963. 
    63. Marshal Dhayal, JS Choi and CH So, Biological fluid interaction with controlled surface properties of organic micro-fluidic devices, Vacuum 80(8) (2006) 876-879. 
    64. Marshal Dhayal, HG Jeong and JS Choi, Use of plasma polymerisation process for fabrication of bio-MEMS for micro fluidic devises, Applied Surface Science, 252 (2005) 1710-1715. 
    65. Marshal Dhayal and JW Bradley, Time-resolved electric probe measurements in the pulsed-plasma polymerisation of acrylic acid, Surface and Coating Technology, 194 (2005) 167-174. 
    66. Marshal Dhayal, KL Parry, RD Short and JW Bradley, Investigating the plasma surface modification of polystyrene at low ion powers densities, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108 (2004) 14000-14004. 
    67. Marshal Dhayal and JW Bradley, Using heated probes in plasma polymerising discharge, Surface and Coating Technology, 184 (2004) 116-122. 
    68. Marshal Dhayal, D Forder, KL Parry, RD Short, JW Bradley, Using an afterglow plasma to modify polystyrene surfaces in pulsed radio frequency (RF) argon discharges, Surface and Coating Technology, 173-174 (2003) 872-876. 
    69. Marshal Dhayal, D Forder, RD Short and JW Bradley, Electron temperature control in low-pressure plasmas using a two-mesh-separation technique, Vacuum, 70 (2003) 67-71. 
    70. Marshal Dhayal, D Forder, RD Short, D Barton and JW Bradley, Tailored plasmas for applications in the surface treatment of materials, Surface and Coating Technology, 162 (2003) 294-300. 
    71. Marshal Dhayal, RA Egnatchik and DM Ratner, Characterizing Carbohydrate Surface Density on Glycan Biosensors, Glycobiology 18(11) (2008) 945-946. 
    72. T Owen, Marshal Dhayal, C Gunn, M Gleeson, M Hochberg and DM Ratner, Ring Resonator Biosensors for Glycochip Applications, Glycobiology 18(11) (2008) 984-985. 
    73. J Jin, JH Shin, Marshal Dhayal and JS Choi, Surface optical properties of TiO2 treated with electron beam, IEEE International Conference on NanoPhotonics-based Biomedical Technology, Jeju, Korea, 2005, 214-216. 
    74. YK Vijay, NK Acharya, V Kulshrestha, K Avasthi, BK Sharma, Marshal Dhayal, HG Jeong and JS Choi, Synthetic membranes for physical, chemical and biological applications, International Symposium on Novel Techniques in Nano-biology (ISNB05), 2005, 130-139. 
    75. Marshal Dhayal, HG Jeong, JS Choi and HC So, Measurement of fluid velocity in organic micro fluidic devices, IEEE International Conference on Nano-Photonics-based Biomedical Technology, Jeju, Korea, 2005, 210-213. 
    76. Marshal Dhayal, HG Jeong and JS Choi, Control of surface physical properties of micro/nano devices for biological applications, Proceeding of International Symposium on Novel Techniques in Nano-biology (ISNB05), KAIST, South Korea, 2005, 60-67. 
    77. Marshal Dhayal, KL Parry, RD Short and JW Bradley, Acrylic acid grafting after tailored plasma treatment of polymer surface, Processing of APP Spring Meeting, Physikzentrum Bad Honnef, 2003, 49-53. 
    78. Marshal Dhayal, MR Alexander and JW Bradley, Investigating the effect of ion flux and electron temperature for plasma polymerisation of acrylic acid, 46th SVC Technical Conference Proceeding, 2003, 15-19. 
    79. KJ Gibson, PK Browning, Marshal Dhayal and B Mihaljcic, Plasma Recombination Regimes in the UMIST Linear System, 28th EPS Conference on Control Fusion and Plasma Phys. Funchal, ECA 25A, 2001, 1677-1680.

    BM506 (Biomaterials Technology) for M.Tech and PhD

    Objectives The objective of this course is to teach the engineering skills with enhanced knowledge in the field of biomaterials. This will help them to understand the current status of field and identifying challenges associated with engineering the technology towards use of biomaterials for biomedical applications. Additionally it will provide advancement in understanding the techniques used for synthesis of biomaterials and characterization by involving students in having practical experiences either in synthesis of biomaterials or in characterization. It covers subjects such as metallic and biodegradable polymeric materials and their relation to tissue engineering, biologic materials, and biomaterials applications in soft and hard tissues.
    Course topics 
    Unit 1: Definition and classification of biomaterials, types of biomaterials, active and passive biomaterials, metallic and non-metallic biomaterials, synthesis of biomaterials and their challenges, surface modification of biomaterials and applications. Lecture -09
    Unit 2: Properties of biomaterials, surface functionality, structural properties, surface energy, electrochemical properties, electrophysical properties, porosity, corrosive properties of biomaterials, surface morphology, biocompatibility, degradation nature of biomaterials and its importance, interactions between different types of biomaterials, biological materials. Lecture -08
    Unit 3: Techniques for advanced biomaterials: Physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, polymerization, functionalization, self-assembly of biomolecules, layer by layer deposition, thin film coatings, methods used for preparation of 3D biomaterials, amorphous and crystalline biomaterials. Lecture -08
    Unit 4: Characterization techniques for advance biomaterials: Surface chemical properties by spectroscopy techniques, surface structure quantification, optical microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, and methods for quantification of release kinetics of biomolecules. Lecture -08
    Unit 5: Smart materials and current advancements in the biomaterials, application of biomaterials in drug delivery, tissue regeneration, metal implants for bone replacement and current challenges. Lecture -06

    1. B. D. Ratner, A. S. Hoffman, F. J. Schoen & J. E. Lemons; Biomaterials Science: An introduction to materials in medicine. Academic Press, Florida (USA).
    2. Joon B. Park, Joseph D. Bronzino; Biomaterials: Principles and Applications, CRC Press.
    3. Jeffrey O. Hollinger; An Introduction to Biomaterials, November 28, 2011 by CRC Press.
    4. Milton Ohring; Materials Science of Thin Films, Academic Press.
    5. L. L. Hench & Ethridge; Biomaterials: An interfacial approach, Academic press, New York.
    6. Journal research papers and review articles (information will be given in the class as per topics and need).

    Assessment   HA and Class Quizzes: [20%]
                            Periodical Exams: [30%]
                            Final Exams: [50%]
    Outcome of the course:This will provide the comprehensive review/knowledge in biomaterials, metals, ceramics, polymers, biological materials and composites and covers recent advances in the field to enhance their engineering skills to effectively use this knowledge to address the current need of the industry and biomedical engineering. The course content will provides a familiarity with the uses of materials in medicine and implants and the rational basis for these applications.

    BM501 (BioMEMs and Biosensors) for IDD and M.Tech

    Objective: The course aims to provide an understanding of the basics of micro-electro-mechanical systems and its application in the biomedical areas. This course is designed to learn the fabrication process of a lab-on-a-chip platform and micro total analysis systems.

    Course topics:
    Unit 1. Introduction to BioMEMs: Overview and definition of BioMEMs, concept of miniaturization, dimensions and scaling challenges in bioMEMs.                                         
    Unit 2. Microfabrication Process: Introduction to micropatterning, micromachining and micromolding. Surface and bulk micromaching, etching and thin film processes (self-assembled monolayers, physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition). Optical lithography, photo-resists, non-optical lithography techniques, polymer-based lithography (soft lithography) and plasmas. System integration – bonding, assembly and packaging and other microfabrication techniques.
    Unit 3. Introduction to Biosensors: Concept of a biosensor, ideal characteristics and challenges of a biosensor, biosensing principles: mechanical, thermal, optic, acoustic, electrochemical, conductometric, potentiometric and amperometric. Examples and applications of biosensors.
    Unit 4. Microfluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip Platforms: Introduction to microfluidics, biofluids, properties of biofluids in microchannels, microfluidic devices, microarray technology, biochip sensors.

    Unit 5. BioMEMs in Biomedical Engineering: Micro total analytical systems for life sciences, integrated gene analysis system, single cell and single molecule analysis, pharmacokinetic analysis, bioMEMs for hybrid devices and 3D artificial organs, bioMEMs for novel tools in nanobiology, microengineering in biotechnology, tissue microengineering.

    • Albert Folch. Introduction to BioMEMS, CRC Press. 
    • Steven S. Saliterman. Fundamentals of BioMEMs and Medical Microdevices. SPIE Press, Jan. 2006.
    • Jeong-Yeol Yoon. Introduction to Biosensors. Springer. 2013.
    • Manz and H. Becker. Microsystems Technology in Chemistry and Life Sciences. Springer, 1999.
    • O. Geschke, H. Klank and P. Telleman. Microsystem Engineering of Lab-on-a-Chip Devices. John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
    • N. –T. Nguyen and S. Wereley. Fundamentals and Applications of Microfluidics. Artech House Publishers. 2002.
    • Ajeet Sadana and Neeti Sadana. Handbook of Biosensors and Biosensor Kinetics. Elsevier. 2011.

    HA:: [10% GRADE]
    QUIZZES-HA:: [10% GRADE]
    FINAL EXAM:: [50% GRADE]

    Outcome: It is expected that after the completion of the course students should be able to have knowledge about manufacturing a micro-device by photolithography and soft lithography techniques, create protein and cellular micro-patterns withins microfluidic device and manipulate and measure biomolecules using custom-designed biosensors.

    Post-doctoral Positions

    Postdoc candidates (having fellowship from CSIR, DST, DBT etc.)  or wish to apply may contact me by sending detailed CV with research interests.

    Ph.D. Positions

    Ph.D. positions are available in my lab for students who have qualified CSIR/UGC/DBT JRF/ DST inspire fellowship. Interested candidate have to follow guidelines of IIT-BHU PhD admission.