Dr. Sanjay Kumar Palei

Associate Professor
Department/School/Unit Name
Department of Mining Engineering, IIT (BHU)
Phone No(s): +91-9415385467
Email: skpalei.min@iitbhu.ac.in
Area of Interest: Mine Safety Engineering, Risk Management, Reliability Analysis and maintenance Planning

Academic Qualifications:  

  • PhD (2007) - Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India

Subjects Taught: 

  • Mine Safety Engineering
  • Underground Mine Environment
  • Safety & Risk Management in Mines
  • Reliability Engineering

Broad Areas of Research:

  • Risk Management
  • Occupational Health & Safety
  • Reliability Analysis
  • Maintenance Planning 
  • Ergonomics

List of Publications:

  • Sahu, A, Palei, S. K., Mishra, M. (2023). Data-Driven Fault Diagnosis Approaches for Industrial Equipment: A Review. Expert Systems. pp.1-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/exsy.13360

  • Singh, K.J., Palei, S. K., Karmakar, N. C. (2022). Postural risk assessment of heavy earthmoving machinery operators in opencast coal mine. 9th Asian Mining Congress on Technological Advancements in Mining Industry: Status and Challenges, April 4-5, 2022, MGMI, Kolkata, India, p. 341-346.

  • Sahu, A. R. & Palei, S.K. (2022). Fault Analysis of Dragline Subsystem Using Bayesian Network Model. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. Vol. 225, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2022.108579

  • Kumar, V., Palei, S. K., Karmakar, N.C., Chaudhary, D. K. (2022). Whole-body vibration exposure vis-à-vis musculoskeletal health risk of dumper operators compared to a control group in coal mines. Safety and Health at Work. Vol. 13(1), pp. 73-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2021.10.007

  • Atal, M.K., Palei, S. K., Chaudhary, D. K., Kumar, V. &  Karmakar, N. C. (2022). Occupational exposure of dumper operators to whole-body vibration in opencast coal mines: an approach for risk assessment using Bayesian network. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. Vol. 28(2), pp. 758-765. https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2020.1828551

  • Chaudhary, D. K., Palei, S. K., Kumar, V. &  Karmakar, N. C. (2022). Whole-body vibration exposure of heavy earthmoving machinery operators in surface coal mines: a comparative assessment of transport and non-transport earthmoving equipment operators. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, Vol. 28(1), pp.174-183. https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2020.1785154

  • Mishra, A, Palei, S. K., Karmakar, N.C., Mishra, M. (2021). Economic risk assessment of PM10 in coal-based industrial region and its management strategy. Arabian Journal of Geosciences Vol. 14 (23). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-08667-y

  • Singh, K.J., Palei, S. K., Karmakar, N. C., Kumar, V., Kumar, A., Gupta, S. (2021). Postural risk assessment of heavy earthmoving machinery operators in mines using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment. 4th International Conference on Opencast Mining Technology & Sustainability (ICOMS), 13-14 Dec 2021, Singrauli, India, p. 125.

  • Sahoo, B. R. & Palei, S.K. (2020). Application of risk-based maintenance using analytic hierarchy process for selection of maintenance policy of dragline. Journal of Mining Science. 56(4), pp. 616-630. https://doi.org /10.1134/S1062739120057239

  • Sahu, A. R. & Palei, S.K. (2020). Real-time fault diagnosis of HEMM using Bayesian Network: A case study on drag system of dragline. Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 118, p.1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2020.104917

  • Patel, M. P., Palei, S. K. & Choudhury, S. (2020). Production scheduling of an iron deposit under ore grade uncertainty. Journal of Mines, Metals & Fuels. Vol. 68(3), pp. 85-90.

  • Sahu, A. R. & Palei, S.K., (2020). Failure mode, effects and criticality analysis of dragline components and evaluation of risk priority number for effective maintenance planning. Journal of Mines, Metals & Fuels. Vol. 68(5), pp. 166-172.

  • Kumar, V., Palei, S. K., &  Karmakar, N. C. (2020). Investigation on whole-body vibration exposure of various heavy earth moving machinery operators in opencast coal mines. Journal of Critical Reviews, Vol. 7 (10), pp. 403-411. https://doi:10.31838/jcr.07.10.85

  • Mishra, A., Palei, S.K. & Gupta, S. (2020). Reliability analysis of dragline using equivalent aging model. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Vol. 45 pp. 6975-84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-020-04622-3

  • Palei, S.K., Das, S., Chatterjee, S. (2020). Reliability-centered maintenance of rapier dragline for optimizing replacement interval of dragline components. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration. Vol. 37, pp.1121–1136 https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-020-00226-5

  • Sahu, A. R. & Palei, S.K.(2020). Fault prediction of drag system using artificial neural network for prevention of dragline failure. Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 113, p.1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2020.104542

  • Mishra, A., Palei, S. K., Karmakar, N.C. (2020). Receptor modelling of pollutants for source apportionment on coal-based anthropogenic activities. Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels, 68(9), 293-303.

  • Purohit, P, Patel, R.K., Waretwar, G., Rai, R, Palei, S. K. & Shrivastva, B.K. (2020). Economic Evaluation of consequences of air Pollution in Indian Opencast Coal Mines. Mining Engineers’ Journal, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 15-20.

  • Chaudhary, D.K., Palei, S. K. (2020). Characteristics of Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Dumper Operators in a Coal Mine. National Conference on “Advances in Mining (AIM-2020)” 14-15 February 2020 held at CIMFR, Dhanbad, India.

  • Chaudhary, D.K., Palei, S. K., Kumar, V., Karmakar, N. C. (2019). Assessment of Health Risk due to Whole-body Vibration Exposure Experienced by HEMM Operators in a Surface Coal Mine, National conference on Recent Advances in Mining Technology (RAMT) 2019 held at Bangalore during  23 - 24 May 2019.

  • Mishra, A., Rai, R., Karmakar, N. C., Palei, S. K.,  Behera, C. K. (2019). Inclusion of Environmental Cess in Coal Pricing – A Broad Framework. International Conference and Exhibition on Energy & Environment: Challenges & Opportunities (ENCO 2019), February 20 - 22, 2019 held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.  

  • Sahu, A. R. & Palei, S. K.  (2018). Reliability Analysis of a Dragline for Productivity Improvement – A Case Study. Journal of Material & Metallurgical Engineering, Vol 8(1), pp. 62-69.

  • Chaudhary, D. K., Kumar, V., Atal, M. K., Palei, S.K. & Karmakar, N. C. (2018). A Study on Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Heavy Earth Moving Machineries Operators in a Coal Mine, National Conference on Mine Environment: Techniques, Equipments & Challenges (15-16 December 2018) organised by M.B.M. Engineering College, Jodhpur, Rajsthan, India. 

  • Mishra, A., Palei, S. K. & Gupta, S. (2017). A reliability based study for estimation of equivalent age of dragline. International Conference on Deep Excavation, Energy Resource and Production (DEEP16), January 24-26, 2017, IIT Kharagpur, India.

  • Kumar, V., Gupta, N. K., Palei,  S. K., & Karmakar,  N. C. (2017). Whole body vibration and its impact on dumper operators in coal mines, ICOVP, 13th International Conference on Vibration Problems, 29 Nov-2 Dec, 2017, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India.

  • Waretwar, G., Patel, R. K., Palei, S. K. &  Rai, R. (2016). Economic Evaluation of Air Pollution from Opencast Mining, National conference on ‘Sustainable mining practices’, 2-3 Dec, 2016, NIT Rourkela.

  • Palei, S. K. & Karmakar, N. C. (2016). Fossil Fuel Conservation through Optimisation in Coal Technology from Mine to Mill, Special Section on: Current Research Topics in Power, Nuclear and Fuel Energy, SP-CRTPNFE 2016, from the International Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering, Science and Technology, 25-27 October, 2016, Hyderabad, India, pp.185-190.

  • Choudhury, S. & Palei, S. K. (2016). Integration of Geographic Information System and Geostatistics in Mineral Exploration: A Case study on Base Metals, Mining Engineers’ Journal, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 19-23.

  • Palei, S.K., Karmakar, N. C., & Reddy, R. S. M. (2014). Effects of Demography and Occupational Traits on Consequence of Injury of Underground Coal Miners. IEEE International Conference on ‘Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management’ IEEM-2014, Malaysia, Dec  9-12, 2014, pp. 1260–64,  DOI: 10.1109/IEEM.2014.7058840.

  • Mishra, A., Murari, P., Palei, S. K. & Gupta, S. (2014). Modeling of Tolerable Repair Time without Affecting System Reliability. The IEEE International Conference on ‘Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management’ IEEM-2014, Malaysia, Dec 9-12, 2014, pp. 1270-74, DOI: 10.1109/IEEM.2014.7058842.

  • Palei, S.K., Karmakar, N. C., Paliwal, P. and Schimm, B. (2013). Optimization of productivity with surface miner using conveyor loading and truck dispatch system.  International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol 2(8), pp. 393-396.

  • Gupta, S.,  Kumar, P, Karmakar, N. C. and Palei, S.K. (2013). Quantification of Human Error Rate in Underground Coal Mines - A Fuzzy Mapping and Rough Set Based Approach. The IEEE International Conference on ‘Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management’ IEEM-2013, Bangkok, Thailand, Dec 10-13, 2013, pp. 140 -144.DOI:10.1109/IEEM.2013.6962391

  • Jain, N., Garg, K., Karmakar, N.C. and Palei, S. K. (2013). Guar Gum in Hydraulic Fracturing in Indian Shale Mines. Proceedings of the National symposium ‘Present Technology and Safety Scenario in Mining & Allied Industries,’ 25-27 February, 2013, Department of Mining Engineering, IIT(BHU), Varanasi, India, 301-314.

  • Gupta, S., Palei, S. K., Karmakar, N.C. and Maiti, J. (2011). Categorization and mitigation of human error to enhance safety in underground mines. Proceedings of 34th International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, December 7-10, 2011, New Delhi, India.

  • Karmakar, N.C., Gupta, S. and Palei, S. K. (2011). Application of tracer gas in the study of ventilation systems for improving mine safety. Proceedings of 34th International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, December 7-10, 2011, New Delhi, India.

  • Palei, S. K., Gupta, S., and Karmakar, N.C. (2011). Identification of human error to enhance safety in underground coal mines through the study of accident data – a concept. In the procs. of the International Conference on Technological Challenges and Management Issues for Sustainability of Mining Industries, 4-6 August, 2011, NIT-Rourkela, India, pp. 343 – 348.

  • Palei, S.K. and Das, S.K. (2009). Logistic regression model for prediction of roof fall risks in bord and pillar workings in coal mines: An approach. Safety Science. Vol. 47, pp. 88-96.

  • Palei, S.K. and Das, S.K. (2008). Sensitivity analysis of support safety factor for predicting the effects of contributing parameters on roof falls in underground coal mines. International Journal of Coal Geology. Vol. 75 (4), pp. 241-247.

  • Palei, S.K. (2008). Surface Miner Technology: An Application in Rock Cutting Operations in Opencast Mines. Proceedings of the National Conference on ‘Rock Machine Interaction in Excavations’ held at Department of Mining Engineering, IT, BHU, 7-8 March, 2008, pp. 73-80.

  • Palei, S.K. and Das, S. K. (2007). Probabilistic risk analysis of roof falls in the underground coal mines. Minetech, Vol. 28 (4), pp. 03-08.

  • Palei, S. K. and Karmakar, N.C. (2007). The Effect of Confounding Factors on Magnitude of Hand-Arm Vibration among Jackhammer Operators in a Mine. Proceedings of the National Conference on ‘New Mining Initiatives for Sustainable Development’ held at Department of Mining Engineering, BESUS, Shibpur, Howrah, India, 17th Nov., 2007, pp. Tech-5/1-11.

  • Palei, S.K. and Das, S.K. (2005). Study of reliability and estimation of risk due to roof fall in underground coal mines. Proceedings of the International Symposium on ‘Advances in Mining Technology and Management’ held at IIT Kharagpur, Nov. 30- Dec. 2, 2005, pp. 575-578.

  • Palei, S.K. and Maiti, J. (2004). The Effect of Hand Arm Vibration on Jackhammer Operators. Proceedings of the International Conference on ‘Technology and Management for Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Resources’ held at IIT Kharagpur, 5-7 February, 2004, pp. 215-224.

Post-Doctoral Supervision:

  1. Dr. Dhanjee Kumar Chaudhary: Mentored a National Post-Doctoral Fellow (N-PDF) for 2 years for the SERB sponsored project titled: "Assessment of Whole Body Vibration exposure on HEMM operators in opencast mines" during 2017-19.

PhD Supervision:

  1. Dr. Atma Ram Sahu. Title: Fault Analysis of Dragline Using Bayesian Network and Artificial Neural Network [Awarded 2021]

  2. Dr.Vivekanand Kumar. Whole-Body Vibration and Its Impact on Heavy Earth Moving Machinery Operators in Opencast Coal Mines [Awarded 2022]

Supervisor: Prof. N C  Karmakar & Co-Supervisor: Dr. S K Palei

  1. Dr. Aishwarya Mishra. Title: Risk Assessment of Coal Mining Areas for Environmental Hazards [Awarded 2022]

  2. Anurag Singh Chauhan: Title: Behavioural study of dumper operators in opencast mines [In Progress]

Supervisor: Dr. S K Palei & Co-Supervisor: Prof. N C Karmakar

  1. Bibhu Ranjan Sahoo: Title: Reliability analysis of Heavy Earth Moving Machineries [In Proress]

  2. Varindra Saini. Title: Economic evaluation of accidents in underground coal mines [In Progress]

Supervisor: Prof. N C Karmakar & Co-Supervisor: Dr. S K Palei

  1. Khane Jithendar Singh. Title: Whole body vibration exposure and its impact on human health with special reference to HEMM operators in mines [In Progress]

Supervisor: Dr. S. K. Palei & Co-Supervisor: Prof. N C Karmakar

M. Tech Thesis Supervision:


  1. Mahesh Munda. 2022. Reserve estimation of Chromite deposit using Surpac software
  2. Arya Shukla (IDD). 2022. Whole body vibration exposure of heavy earth moving machinery operators in mines
  3. Priyanshu Kushwah (IDD). 2022. Classification of minerals and identification of geological features using machine learning
  4. Pratik Saroj (IDD). 2021. Study on spontaneous combustion of coal
  5. Gaurav Pushp. 2021. Source apportionment of pollutant in coal bearing industrial region of India using mathematical receptor model
  6. Kaushal Kumar. 2021. Investigation on whole body vibration and musculoskeletal disorders on HEMM operators in mines
  7. Bhupesh Kumar. 2020. Retrospective investigations on disaster occurrences in Indian coal mines
  8. Nilesh Dewangan. 2020. Effect of Haul Roads on Whole-Body Vibration of Dumper Operators in Opencast mines
  9. Nimba Ram (IDD). 2020. Reliability analysis of critical subsystems of the dragline machine
  10. Mukesh Kumar Manish (IDD). 2020. Reliability and maintainability analysis of belt conveyor system for improving its performance
  11. Bayyarapu Manoj Kumar (IDD). 2019. Behavioural analysis of dumper drivers in opencast coal mines
  12. Khane Jithender Singh. 2019. Preventive maintenance schedule for optimal utilisation of HEMM using reliability centred maintenance in opencast mines
  13. Ammanabrolu Guru Brahmam. 2019. Study of factors influencing coal price and development of a pricing model for Indian coal
  14. Ashutosh Singh. (IDD). 2018. Development of Accident cost indicator model for underground coal mines using Fuzzy logic.
  15. Mahendra Kumar Atal. 2018. Whole body vibration and its’ effects on dumper operators in opencast mines.
  16. Varindra Saini. 2018. Accident cost indicator model for underground coal mines.
  17. Mayanka Mohan Pandey (IDD). 2017. Development of combined risk index for Indian mining industry.
  18. Himanshu Naik (IDD). 2017. Probabilistic analysis of slope stability
  19. Nitesh Kumar Gupta. 2017. Relationship of several factors with whole body vibration exposure in dumper operators in coal mines.
  20. Bibhu Ranjan Sahoo. 2017. Selection of maintenance policy for dragline using Analytic Hierarchy Process.
  21. Sachin Singh. 2017. Study of financial factors on coal pricing and development of a pricing model for Indian coal.
  22. Anurag Singh Chauhan. 2017. Study on consequences of accidents on production in underground coal mines using Markov modeling.
  23. Rishubh Saxena (IDD). 2016. Pricing of coal supplied to power plants for mutual benefit of coal mining company and thermal power station: An approach
  24. Smarak Das. (IDD). 2016. Reliability analysis of mining equipment
  25. Nikhil Jain. (IDD). 2016. Hydraulic fracturing and fracture modelling of Indian shale
  26. Aishwarya Mishra. 2015. Reliability analysis using operational data
  27. Ashish Singh (IDD). 2014. Risk management under uncertainty in underground coal mines
  28. Rutwik S M Reddy (IDD). 2013. Accident analysis in underground coal mines – A case study
  29. Gaurav Mohta. 2013. Prediction of environmental quality of air in an opencast mine with reference to haul/transport roads
  30. Patel Malhar Kumar. 2010. Production planning and scheduling in opencast mines



  • Recipient of Young Engineer Award, Institution of Engineers (India) in 2012.

  • Guest of Honour in the seminar on ‘Behavioural Safety’ held on Dec. 19, 2009 at Nigahi Project, Northern Coalfields Limited, Singrauli, MP, and delivered Invited Lecture on ‘Behavioural Safety of Dumper Drivers in Opencast Mines’

  • Chaired the session 'Reliability and Management Engineering' in the IEEE conference on Industrial Engineering & Engineering Management, IEEM-2014 held in Selangor, Malaysia during 9-12 December, 2014.

  • Recipient of Silver Medal (Badminton), 23rd inter IIT Annual Staff Sports Meet 2016 held at IIT Kanpur.

  • Recipient of Bronze Medal (Badminton), 24th inter IIT Annual Staff Sports Meet 2017 held at IIT Madras.

  • Vice-Chairman, JEE (Advanced)-2017, IIT (BHU), Varanasi.

  • IIT (BHU) Institute Representative for conducting JEE (Advanced)-2018, 2019 & 2022 examinations.

  • Convener DPGC for two consecutive academic years (2019-20 & 2020-21)

  • Served as Administrative Warden, Dhanrajgiri Hostel, IIT (BHU) for 5 years & as Warden for 1 year.

  • Nominated as the Faculty Advisor for the session 2014-15 for the M. Tech and PhD level courses by the DPGC, Department of Mining Engineering, IIT (BHU), Varanasi.