Stability analysis of flexural toppling

Figure 18 shows a typical flexural toppling failure in which the slabs of rock flex and maintain fact-to-face contact. The mechanism of flexural toppling is different from the block toppling mechanism described above. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use limit equilibrium stability analysis for design of toppling slopes.  In the literatures, various techniques that have been used to study the stability of flexural toppling include base friction models (Goodman, 1976), centrifuges (Adhikary et al., 1997) and numerical modeling (Pritchard and Savigny, 1990, 1991).


Figure 18: shows a typical flexural toppling failure