4.7 Topography

Topography has a direct influence on dump stability in different ways. Mine dump instability on steep terrain may be due to the difficulty in achieving adequate dump density and therefore the maximum shear strength of the material. Other problems include slope regions with increasing slope angles in the vicinity of the toe or side flanks. Flat or near horizontal slope is more stable whereas, steep slopes approaching the natural angle of repose for the overburden dump material are likely to exhibit ravelling, or other planar instability.