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B. Tech Part 2 Syllabus


Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 3

The Crystalline state: Atomic bonding, Bravais lattices, Miller indices, Structures of some common inorganic compounds and elemental solids, Braggs law, Structural imperfections, Alloys and Binary phase diagram.

Mechanical Properties: Load elongation curve, Elementary ideas about elastic and plastic deformation, creep, fatigue and fracture of materials.

Thermal Properties: Lattice waves, Brillouin zone, Phonon dispersion, Lattice specific heat, Thermal expansion and thermal shock resistance.

Electron Theory of Solids: Fee electron theory of metals, elementary ideas about zone and band theory of solids, Classification of conductors, semiconductors and insulators, Hall effect, P-n junction.

Magnetic Properties: Dia, Para, Ferro, antiferro, and ferrimagnetism, soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications.

Superconductivity: Zero resistance, Meissner effect, Soft and Hard Superconductors, Josephson Junction, High temperature superconductors, Applications of superconductors.

Dielectric Properties: Polarization mechanisms and their frequency response, piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials and their applications, Examples of some common dielectric materials.


Contact hours per week: 4

Credits: 4

General Considerations: Magnetic circuits, coupled coils: - self, mutual, leakage inductances. Singly & doubly excited systems. General constructional features of static and rotating machines. Windings:-concentrated and distributed types, distribution factor and coil-span factor. MMF distribution in space and time domain. Statically & dynamically induced e.m.f. due to rotation of winding in stationary and rotating magnetic fields; frequency and magnitude of voltage across slip rings and commutator, action of commutator as a frequency changer. Harmonics in e.m.f. generation.

D.C. Machines: Special constructional features and limitations. Power balance EMF equation and torque equation. Operation as generator - separately and self excited modes. Armature- reaction & commutation; Parallel operation and load sharing. Operation as motor-characteristics and their control, starting; Speed control; Braking; Applications; Losses and testing; Introduction to Cross-field machines.

Transformers: Special constructional features- Cruciform section, mitered joints, winding arrangements, cooling methodologies, Conservators and breathers. Two winding transformers, ampere turns balance, Phasor diagram, referred parameters equivalent circuit; Voltage regulation; No load current waveforms. Per-unit system of representation; Losses; power efficiency & all-day efficiency. Poly-phase transformer connections. Vector groups; parallel operation and load sharing, phase conversion. Testing. Auto-transformers: - Equivalent circuit, losses, efficiency; comparison with 2-winding transformers; Applications. Transformer for special purposes - pulse, high frequency, rectifier, welding, isolation.



Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 3

Systems and Signals: Systems Classification and their properties. Signals Mathematical descriptions of deterministic signals, signals classification.

Network Elements and Their Characterization: Dependent and independent sources. Mathematical descriptions of passive elements.

Modeling of Physical Systems: Models based on known physical laws, analogous systems. Network topology-Graph theoretical models of electrical networks and systems. Loop and modal equations. Dual graphs and dual networks.

Loop and Nodal Methods of Analysis: Matrix methods and network theorems. Circuit analysis by classical method. Natural and force responses.

Fourier Analysis: Fourier series representation of periodic signals, frequency Spectrum, Fourier integral & Fourier transform analysis with Fourier transform. Laplace transform method- Laplace transform. Transfer functions. Analyses of electrical circuits Laplace transform. Convolution integral.

Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis of RLC Circuits: Power and power factor phasor method of analysis, Phasor diagrams and Resonant circuits. Three-Phase circuits balanced and unbalanced, Power measurements Feed-back systems, Massons formula and signal flow graph. State variable & State space analysis.


Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 3

Introduction: Philosophy of electrical measurements, theory of errors, electrical measuring instruments and their classification.

Analog Instruments: General working principles and construction of indicating instruments. Electro-magnetic Instruments for the measurement of current, voltage, power and energy. Extension of instrument range- CTs & PTs.

Miscellaneous Instruments: Instruments for the measurement of power factor, frequency, phase sequence indicators. Potentiometers.

Electronic and Digital Instruments: Measurement of electrical quantities. CRO

Measurement of Electrical Parameters: High, medium and low resistance measurement. Measurement of inductance, capacitance and mutual inductance. Bridges and null type measuring methods- Kelvin double bridge, inductance, capacitance and mutual inductance measurement using bridges.

Magnetic Measurement: Flux meter, measurement of permeability, magnetic losses. Introduction to high voltage measurements.


Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 3

The Field Concept: Review of Maxwells equations, Poynting theorem. Sources of electromagnetic field; Classification; Potentials; Boundary conditions.

Boundary Value Problems in Electrostatics: Laplace and Poissons equations. Product solution method of solving Laplaces equation in Rectangular; Spherical and Cylindrical coordinate systems; Methods of Images; Field plotting methods.

Conformal Transformation Technique: Complex potential transformations involving circular and elliptical boundaries; Bilinear and Schwartz Christoffel transformations.

Numerical Methods: Finite difference equivalent of Laplaces equation; Iteration and relaxation methods; Introduction to Finite Element method, Method of moments and charge simulation method, introduction to FEM package. Application of field theory to electrical devices

Magneto Static Fields: Law of magneto static-vector potential, Boundary value problems in magneto static, current sheet and flux sheet.

Electromagnetic Fields: Relation between field theory and circuit theory; Numerical calculation of Capacitance, self inductance, mutual inductance, stored energy, co energy and different forces. Maxwell stress tensor.

Electromagnetic Wave Equation: Propagation of electromagnetic waves in dielectric and conductor, space sheet; Transmission lines.

Radiation and Antenna: Retarded potential, Hertzian dipole, Antenna pattern, directivity and gain.


Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 3

Introduction to Number System and Codes: Radix conversion. Gray codes, Hamming codes for error detection and error correction.

Combinatorial Systems: Postulates and fundamental theorems for Boolean algebra. Canonical forms of Boolean function. Unate function.

Minimization: Karnaugh map and Quine McCluskey method. Incompletely specified functions. Multiple output functions.

Synthesis of Switching Functions: Use of logic gates, logic family, TTL, CMOS, multiplexers, decoders, encoders. Read-only memory. Programmable logic array.

Fault Diagnosis: Introduction, fault tolerance techniques. Design for testability.

Sequential Machines: Introduction, flip- flops, edge-triggered flip-flops, excitation table. Design of counters, shift- registers.

Synchronous Sequential Machines: State tables and state diagrams. State minimization.

Fundamental Mode Sequential Machines: State assignment, cycle and hazard.


Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 2

The Process of Engineering Design: Need statement, Need analysis, specifications,

Generation of design ideas: Creativity in engineering design, evaluation and consolidation of ideas, design decisions, design development.

Different Factors in Engineering Design: Human factors, economic factors, optimization and reliability design of electrical equipment and systems,

Technical Aspects: Electrical rating, duty cycle, properties of material, design of coils, wiring safety standards, protection, Failure analysis.

Standards: Introduction to Indian, international ISO standards.

Case Studies.


Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 3

Algebra of Operators and Interpolation: Error Analysis and estimation; Interpolation-ordinary difference operators E and D, divided differences, Newton-cotes formula, Lagranges formula, Central differences, method of ordinary least squares, cubic splines.

Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations: graphical method, inverse interpolation, iterative methods, Reguli falsi, Newton-Raphson method

Matrices: Matrix decomposition, triangulation of matrices, product form of inverse generalized matrix inverse, Inverse matrix modification

Solution of system of linear equations: Methods of elimination, methods of Relaxation, iterative method, ill conditioned system.

Numerical Integration: Newton-cotes, Gauss quadratures

Difference Equations.

Differential Equations.

Initial-value Problems: Method of successive approximations, Eulers method, Runge-Kutta method, Miline method.

Boundary-value Problem: Method of undetermined coefficients, difference scheme based on quadrature formulas, solution of tridiagonal system, mixed boundary conditions, Boundary conditions at infinity, Nonlonear boundary-value problems, convergence of difference schemes, Linear eigenvalue problems.


Contact hours per week: 4

Credits: 4

Half-wave and full-wave rectifiers. Filters and power supplies.

Biasing circuits of BJT and FET, RC and DC coupled amplifiers, wide-band and tuned amplifiers. Active impedance transformers, power amplifiers, impedance matching. Feedback Amplifiers. RC and LC Oscillators.

Characteristics, limitations and applications of OP-AMPS. Special purpose amplifiers. Analog multipliers.

Voltage regulators, Timers, VCO, PLL and function generators. Analog switches and multiplexers. ADC and DAC.


Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 3

Introduction: Formulation of network equation, KCL, KVL and Tellegens theorem. Network representations and transform methods of network analysis

Network Functions: Poles and zeros, restrictions on pole and zero locations for driving point functions and transfer functions. Time-domain response from pole and zero plot. Stability of active networks.

Two-Port Networks: Characteristics of linear time-invariant networks, relationships among different network parameters, interconnections of networks. Two port devices.

Attenuators: Image and scattering parameters, insertion loss. Various types of attenuators.

Analysis of Filters: Transient response and reduction of overshoot, sensitivity. Active filters- poles and zeros, filter design.

Network Synthesis: Positive real function physical realizabilty conditions, properties of one port immittance functions and their synthesis. Foster and Cauer forms, RLC synthesis. Introduction to two-port network synthesis.


Contact hours/ week: 3

Credits: 3

Introduction: Generation, transmission and distribution of electrical power, AC and DC systems, underground and overhead lines.

Economics of Generation: Cost of electrical energy, load and diversity factors, combined operation of power stations.

Distribution Systems : Radial and ring systems, selection of feeders and distributors, DC and AC distribution, concentrated and distributed loads, design considerations of a distribution system, house and factory wiring, power factor improvement, economic aspects, tariff.

Underground Cables: Constructional details of various types of cables, oil and gas-filled cables, voltage gradient, grading, sheath loss, thermal ratings, parameters.

Line Insulators: Different types, string efficiency, voltage equalization.

Overhead Transmission Lines: Resistance, inductance, capacitance, GMR, GMD, Bundled and hollow conductors, inductive interference, surge impedance

Line Performance: Generalized circuit constants, nominal and equivalent T and representation, long line equations, efficiency and regulation, power circle diagram, series and shunt compensation, surge impedance loading


Contact hours per week: 4

Credits: 4

Three phase Induction Machines: Constructional details; power flow diagram, machine impedance, coupled circuit equations, steady state analysis; equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, developed torque and power, torque-slip characteristic, effect of rotor resistance, starting methods, circle diagram, speed control, braking, high starting torque motors, unbalanced operation, effect of space and time harmonics, testing. Induction generator, Induction regulators.

Single-phase Induction Motors: Types and construction, production of starting torque, double revolving field theory, equivalent circuit, performance analysis, maximization of starting torque, testing.

Synchronous Machines: Constructional details, principle of operation as generator:- m.m.f. and flux-distribution pattern, excitation systems, impedance and m.m.f. approaches to analysis, O.C., S.C., and Z.P.F. characteristics, voltage regulation, steady state operation, phasor diagram, salient-pole machines, two-reaction theory, phasor diagram, transient reactances and time constants; parallel operation. Operation as a motor:- starting characteristics, power circle diagram, V and inverted V curves, power angle characteristics, synchronous condensers.

Commutator Machines: Characteristics and Applications.

Concept of Generalized Machine theory


Contact hours per week: 3

Credits: 3

Linear Programming: Problem formulation, solution by simplex, revised simplex and dual simplex methods, sensitivity analysis, goal programming, network flows; transportation and assignment models.

Discrete Optimization: Integer programming, branch and bound method, tabu search, simulated annealing and genetic algorithms (GA).

Non-linear Optimization: Unconstrained optimization; steepest decent, conjugate gradient, Newtons method and least squares methods. Constrained optimization; method of Lagrange multipliers, Kuhn-Tucker conditions, quadratic programming and penalty methods. Sequentially Unconstrained Minimization Techniques (SUMT).

Dynamic programming.